Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 317-318
Assessment of ganga hospital open injury severity score of limbs

Department of Orthopedics, ESIC MC PGIMSR and Model Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

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Date of Submission24-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2020

How to cite this article:
Kumar K N, S. Shivanna HY, Santhosh Kumar T N, Pratheeksh. Assessment of ganga hospital open injury severity score of limbs. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2020;13:317-8

How to cite this URL:
Kumar K N, S. Shivanna HY, Santhosh Kumar T N, Pratheeksh. Assessment of ganga hospital open injury severity score of limbs. J Emerg Trauma Shock [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Sep 27];13:317-8. Available from:

Dear Editor,

In the management of Type-IIIB injuries, Gustilo’s classification has the disadvantages of a poor intra- and inter-observer agreement rate, low specificity and sensitivity to salvage, and inability to predict functional outcomes. We at ESIC MC PGIMSR Hospital, Bengaluru, here evaluated the open injury of validated score, that is, Ganga Hospital Open Injury Severity Score (GHOISS), which assesses the severity of injury to the covering structures, skeletal structures, and functional tissues of the injured limb separately along with providing weightage to the presence of comorbid factors.[1],[2],[3] We studied twenty cases of limb salvage and amputation after traumatic injuries managed at ESIC Hospital, India. The functional and health-related quality-of-life outcomes were assessed. A high sensitivity and specificity for amputation was documented when a score of 14 was used as the threshold score. In the salvaged limbs, the score was found to offer guidelines in protocols for reconstruction. According to the total score, injuries were treated by “Fix and Close” protocol; “Fix, Bone Graft and Close” protocol, “Fix and Flap” protocol or “Stabilize, Watch, Assess, and Reconstruct” protocol. The score was thus found to be useful clinically not only to assess salvage but also to provide guidelines in reconstruction. Out of the twenty Type-IIIB open injuries, 18 were salvaged and 2 were amputated. A Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) of 7 and above had a sensitivity of 25% for amputation, whereas GHOISS of 17 and above was found to be more accurate for determining amputation with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93.75%. GHOISS is a reliable predictor of injury severity in Type-IIIB open fractures [Figure 1] and [Figure 2] and can be used as a guide for decision-making [Table 1]. The use of MESS score has a lower predictive value compared to GHOISS in deciding amputation versus salvage. A GHOISS of 17 or more has the highest sensitivity and specificity to predict amputation.
Figure 1: Type-IIIB open injury wound

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Figure 2: X-ray image of Type-IIIB lower limb fracture

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Table 1: The Gustilo Type-IIIB injuries were widely scattered among the various groups of the GHOISS and the MESS, indicating that injuries of a wide range of severity were clustered together in the Gustilo Grade-III classification

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There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Rajasekaran S, Sabapathy SR, Dheenadhayalan J, Sundararajan SR, Venkatramani H, Devendra A, Ramesh P, Srikanth KP. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2015 Feb;41(1):3-15. doi: 10.1007/s00068-014- 0465-9. Epub 2014 Nov 6. PMID: 26038161.  Back to cited text no. 1
Shanmuganathan R. The utility of scores in the decision to salvage or amputation in severely injured limbs. Indian J Orthop. 2008 Oct;42(4):368-76. doi: 10.4103/0019- 5413.43371. PMID: 19753223; PMCID: PMC2740356  Back to cited text no. 2
Rajasekaran S, Sabapathy SR. A philosophy of care of open injuries based on the Ganga hospital score. Injury. 2007 Feb;38(2):137-46. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2006.04.135. Epub 2006 Sep 6. PMID: 16950263.  Back to cited text no. 3

Correspondence Address:
T N Santhosh Kumar
Department of Anesthesia,Critical Care and Pain Management, ESIC MC PGIMSR and Model Hospital,Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_68_20

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1]

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