Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 124-130

Clinical Characteristics, Management Practices, and In-hospital Outcomes among Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism

1 Trauma Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital (HGH), Doha, Qatar
2 Clinical Research, Trauma and Vascular Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, HGH; Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar
3 Clinical Research, Trauma and Vascular Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, HGH, Doha, Qatar, Qatar
4 Department of Emergency Medicine, Sarasota Memorial Hospital and Florida State University, Sarasota, Florida, USA

Correspondence Address:
Ayman El-Menyar
Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha; Department of Surgery, Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_83_19

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Background: We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics, management practices, and inhospital outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among trauma patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all trauma patients with documented venous thromboembolic events in a level 1 trauma center was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the primary initial presentation postinjury (deep-vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolism [PE]). Results: Across the study period, a total of 662 patients were confirmed to have DVT and 258 patients were diagnosed with acute PE. Among them, 84 patients were identified to have trauma-associated VTE; 56 (8.5%) had DVT and 28 (10.9%) had PE. Two patients who initially presented with DVT developed PE on follow-up. There were 38 females and 46 males with a mean age of 46 ± 18 years. Abnormal coagulation profile was reported as 7 protein C deficiencies, 5 protein S deficiencies, 6 homocystinemia, 4 antithrombin III deficiency, 4 lupus anticoagulant, and 2 Factor V Leiden. Age, sex, obesity, D-dimer level, and treatment (except for heparin) were comparable between the two groups; whereas protein S deficiency, prior history of PE, bedridden status, congestive heart failure, and history of recent surgery, were more evident in the PE group. The incidence of postthrombotic syndrome was significantly higher in the DVT group. Overall mortality rate was 8.3% (DVT; 8.9% vs. PE; 7.1%, respectively = 0.78). Conclusion: Coagulation profile plays an important role in posttraumatic thromboembolic disease. A thorough assessment for features of thromboembolic disorders is warranted in polytrauma patients to avoid missing this potentially life-threatening diagnosis. Larger studies are needed for better understanding and management of VTE in trauma.

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