Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Home About us Editors Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives Search Instructions Subscribe Advertise Login 
Users online:1802   Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size   

 Table of Contents    
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 228-232
The therapeutic challenges of degloving soft-tissue injuries

1 Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
2 Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
3 Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; Clinical Research, Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
4 Clinical Research, Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission18-Dec-2013
Date of Acceptance09-Apr-2014
Date of Web Publication16-Jul-2014


Background: Degloving soft-tissue injuries are serious and debilitating conditions. Deciding on the most appropriate treatment is often difficult. However, their impact on patients' outcomes is frequently underestimated. Objectives: We aimed to study the incidence, clinical presentation, management and outcome of degloving soft-tissue injuries. Materials and Methods: We conducted a narrative traditional review using the key words; "degloving injury" and "soft-tissue injuries" through search engines PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus. Results: There are several therapeutic options for treating degloving soft-tissue injuries; however, no evidence-based guidelines have been published on how to manage degloving soft-tissue injuries, although numerous articles outline the management of such injuries. Conclusion: Degloving soft-tissue injuries are underreported and potentially devastating. They require early recognition, and early management. A multidisciplinary approach is usually needed to ensure the effective rehabilitation of these patients.

Keywords: Degloving, Morel-Lavallιe lesions, soft-tissue injuries, trauma

How to cite this article:
Latifi R, El-Hennawy H, El-Menyar A, Peralta R, Asim M, Consunji R, Al-Thani H. The therapeutic challenges of degloving soft-tissue injuries. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2014;7:228-32

How to cite this URL:
Latifi R, El-Hennawy H, El-Menyar A, Peralta R, Asim M, Consunji R, Al-Thani H. The therapeutic challenges of degloving soft-tissue injuries. J Emerg Trauma Shock [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Aug 16];7:228-32. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Degloving soft-tissue injuries are a form of avulsion of soft tissue, in which an extensive portion of skin and subcutaneous tissue detaches from the underlying fascia and muscles. Such injuries can affect every part of the body, but in particular the limbs, trunk, scalp, face, and genitalia [Figure 1]. [1],[2],[3] In addition to local tissue injuries, severe concomitant injuries and massive blood loss typically occur, so the degloved skin and soft tissue are often effectively dead.
Figure 1: Degloving injury of the right leg that required defatting of the skin

Click here to view

Prompt recognition of degloving soft-tissue injuries is essential, yet treatment is time-consuming and often delayed. Thus, severe degloving injuries, if not recognized may progress to infection or even to necrotizing fasciitis [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. The severity of complications depends on the mechanism, the concomitant injuries, and the anatomic side affected and whether the degloving injuries are open or closed. As there are no established guidelines or consensus for the management of degloving injuries, we aim to study the incidence, clinical presentation, management and outcome of degloving soft-tissue injuries. Degloving soft-tissue injuries are serious and potentially devastating surgical conditions. Many factors affect outcomes, such as the anatomic location, the force that caused the injury, and the presence of associated injuries. However, early recognition is a crucial step for the favorable outcome.
Figure 2: (a) Large degloving injury of the patients run by a car (b) Injury complicated by extensive necrosis within 72 hours (c) requiring major debridement

Click here to view
Figure 3: Major degloving injury in a patient with severe pelvic injury that was diagnosed late (a) requiring major debridment of skin and subcutaneous tissue

Click here to view


The various classifications have been described based on 4 patterns of degloving (limited with abrasion/avulsion, non-circumferential, circumferential single plane, and circumferential multiplane degloving). [4] These injuries can occur either in isolation or infrequently in combination . In addition, all degloving soft-tissue injuries are classified as either open or closed. Morel-Lavallée lesions (MLL), is one of the most important type and is a significant soft-tissue injury associated with pelvic trauma (30%) and thigh (20%), [5],[6],[7],[8] although, it can also be present in other anatomic locations. [9] Such lesions can be related to sports [10] or caused by motor vehicle collisions.

Although, degloving soft-tissue injuries can be present in any part of the body, the lower limb degloving injuries are the most common ones [Figure 1] and if not managed optimally, are associated with high rates of morbidity and potentially mortality [Figure 4]. [11] Scalp, [12] upper limb, [3] heel, [13] degloving injuries may cause significant blood loss and hemodynamic instability. In particular, one should keep this in mind with scalp injuries that degloving injuries involving the external genitalia, [14] though uncommon, can be life threatening, with incapacitating and psychologically devastating consequences. Degloving injuries, in children in particular, foot degloving injuries - can be serious and may require advanced complex surgical techniques, if functionality is to be restored. [15],[16]
Figure 4: A patient with severe degloving injury at the presentation after he had been run by a tire of industrial truck (a) 24 hours later

Click here to view


Degloving soft-tissue injuries are challenging to diagnose. [3],[9] Clinical assessment of the degloved skin is a weak predictor of the extent of injury. Use of intravenous fluorescein has been proposed as a better assessment method, but may overestimate the line of demarcation between viable and nonviable skin. [17] If arterial inflow is adequate, the soft tissue can be debrided and closed without tension. After incomplete avulsion, skin color, skin temperature, pressure reaction, and bleeding or lack of bleeding should be examined carefully to assess tissue viability. [18],[19]

Accurate diagnosis of MLL is delayed in up to one third of patients, because of inconsistent clinical presentation and because initial skin bruising can mask the importance of the underlying soft-tissue injuries. In most patients, diagnosis is made from clinical detection of a fluctuant area combined with the findings of appropriate imaging modalities. Serum inflammatory markers sometimes are within the normal range. [5] Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are all useful tools for proper diagnosis, but MRI is the modality of choice for evaluating MLL.

Treatment principles

Treatment of degloving soft-tissue injuries may be complex and requires careful assessment of the extent of the devitalized tissue and the blood supply to the affected tissues. The general treatment principles include preservation of as much tissue as possible, early primary definitive skin cover, good-quality skin cover, early return of function, and the necessity of any secondary procedures. [3]

For finger injuries, the first and best surgical option is always a replantation and revascularization procedure. Often, when the degloved skin is totally removed from the patient's body, it can be put back by replantation. This dual procedure, however, requires great expertise and vast resources. Furthermore, trauma patients often may have other life-threatening injuries that do not allow for a lengthy replantation and revascularization procedures.

For patients with more limited degloving injuries with abrasion and/or avulsion, free tissue transfer procedures can be performed to cover any exposed underlying tendons, bones, and joints. Also, it is recommended to carry on minimal tissue excision (including minimal wound circumcision). Flap reconstruction leads to prompt primary healing. Free tissue transfer techniques include the single-stage microvascular technique. The tissue that is transferred may be either an anterolateral thigh flap, [20] which is a skin flap, or a latissimus dorsi muscle flap, [21] which is covered with a skin graft. Unfortunately, only a very few centers in the world can perform such types of tissue that can be transferred; free tissue transfer procedures have also been limited by the need for expertise in microvascular surgery. Moreover, after reconstruction of a degloved hand or finger, certain secondary procedures may be required (such as scar revision, flap thinning, or syndactyly release). [3]

The avulsed skin has been used as a source of (split- or full-thickness) skin grafts. Surgeons often need to combine defatting of the avulsed skin with fenestration, followed by negative-pressure dressing. [22] If the degloving is extensive, another option is to commit the patient to serial excisions before reconstruction; a theoretical disadvantage is the potential for bone desiccation and nosocomial infection. [23]

For patients with extensive avulsion of the skin including narrow or distal pedicles, with or without involvement of superficial subcutaneous tissue - who do not have damage to deeper tissue, the best treatment is to completely divide the pedicle, defat the skin, and replace the avulsed skin as a full-thickness skin graft. If the wound is too contaminated or too swollen, the avulsed tissue should be cleansed with pulsatile lavage, left open, and addressed at a second exploration. For patients with non-circumferential degloving injuries, tissue excision is always needed. But, with either the application of skin grafts or flap reconstruction, the wound heals by primary intention. For patients with single-plane circumferential degloving injuries, flaps are excised while for patients with circumferential multiplane degloving injuries; a staged reconstruction is suggested. [4] Degloving injuries associated with open fractures should be managed by comprehensive excision of devitalized hard and soft tissue, followed by appropriate skeletal fixation and the application of vascularized soft-tissue cover. [4]

Management of specific anatomical injuries

Lower-limb injuries

The management of lower-limb degloving injuries can be complex and quite involved. In recent years, use of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device to prepare the wound bed for grafting has become standard practice. [22],[23],[24] Occasionally, lower-limb degloving injuries require cryopreserved split-thickness skin grafts procured from degloved flaps, artificial dermal replacement, or VAC therapy. Some authors have reported using a ring fixator to manage lower-limb degloving injuries; the fixator eventually helps prepare the wound bed for grafting, eases the application of graft tissue, facilitates graft care, and allows for passive mobilization of joints. [25] Yet, the more common technique is radical debridement followed by immediate application of a full-thickness skin graft.

Foot injuries

Management of foot degloving injuries is complex and should involve different specialties. In both children and adults, such injuries can be treated successfully with application of a defatted full-thickness skin graft, followed by conventional dressings. Such treatment is relatively simple, and can provide good functional and cosmetic results. In addition, replacing the degloved skin as a full-thickness graft and securing it with a VAC device can salvage the foot.

Upper-limb injuries

The main options in the management of upper-limb degloving injuries include

  1. Salvaging the degloved segment through revascularization techniques, such as direct arterial anastomosis or arteriovenous shunting, and
  2. Reconstructing the unsalvageable segment with microsurgical or non-microsurgical techniques. [26]

The primary goals include limitation of secondary soft-tissue loss, prevention of infection, serial debridement as needed, temporary joint trans fixation, reconstruction of the microcirculation, dermatofasciotomy in case of compartment syndrome, temporary soft-tissue coverage, systematic conditioning of soft tissues, and secondary soft-tissue reconstruction. [27]

Hand injuries

Hand degloving injuries can be devastating. For a patient with a degloved finger, replantation should be attempted as no other reconstruction procedure can restore the cosmetic and functional characteristics of native finger skin. [28] The various replantation treatment options include replantation surgery with vascular anastomosis; reconstruction with a thumb flap and a portion of one second toe for a dorsal skin flap; reconstruction with the second toe of both feet for a dorsal skin flap; or repair with an abdominal flap. [29]

Other surgeons have replanted the degloved skin using arteriovenous anastomosis of the radial artery (at the wrist) to the cephalic vein (in the degloved skin), in an end-to-side manner; to enhance the survival of the replanted skin, it was de-epithelialized and buried in an abdominal pocket created specifically for this purpose. [30] More recently, a modified abdominal flap (also known as the "compartmented abdominal flap") has been introduced as a "one-flap solution0" for degloving injuries of the hand and fingers. [31] For complete finger degloving injuries, resurfacing the defect with a parallelogram-shaped free flap from the medial arm in a spiral fashion has also been reported. [32] Omental coverage for complex upper-extremity defects is also a good option. The long vascular pedicle and the large amount of pliable, well-vascularized tissue allow the flap to be aggressively contoured to meet the needs of complex 3-dimensional defects. Others have suggested vein arterialization as a valid approach to re-establish the blood supply of a degloved finger - as long as physiologic circulation restoration is not possible and veins in the degloved tissue are not damaged. [33],[34]

Abdominal wall-degloving injuries

Abdominal wall-degloving injuries have not been reported adequately in the literature, although they represent some of the most serious injuries with potential acute and long-term consequences. Often these injuries are associated with seatbelt injuries, and other intra-abdominal organ injuries, such as mesenteric or intestines (large or small bowel) or solid organ injuries. The treatment is not straightforward by any means and often requires multiple surgeries and complex abdominal wall reconstruction using various meshes, including biologic mesh in the face of infections and loss of abdominal domain.

Management of MLL is complex and may be operative and nonoperative. Surgical treatment includes evacuation of hematomas and necrotic tissue debridement, percutaneous aspiration and compression bandaging, debridement and vacuum dressing, the Ronceray surgical method and other forms. The Ronceray surgical method uses aponeurotic fenestrations to allow active internal drainage and resorption by adjacent muscle fibers. [35] Others use quilting sutures for the management of seroma formation, especially after abdominoplasty and with lesions resistant to conservative measures. [36]

Surgery involves evacuation of the hemolymphatic collection with excision of the pseudo capsule and debridement of necrotic tissue. The wound may be left open, with or without VAC dressing, or it can be closed primarily, with or without a drain. In our practice, if wound closed, large drain (19 Fr) is left in. The use of synthetic glue to close the dead space intraoperatively has been advocated by some authors. [37],[38] We believe that early percutaneous drainage with debridement, irrigation, and suction drainage appears to be safe and effective for patients with MLL, as has been suggested already. [7] The use of percutaneous drainage needs to be followed with compressive bandages and use of a pressure garment. All complicated MLL require thorough early debridement, either before or during pelvic or acetabular surgery. The wound should be left open; repeated surgical debridement of the injured tissue must be performed, as needed, especially if infection has settled in. [9] For patients with delayed contour deformity caused by liposuction, open surgery is required. [6] If conservative management is pursued for patients with MLL, surgeons must be careful (while removing subcutaneous hematomas and dead fat, performing proper drainage, and applying pressure dressings) and needs to continue to monitor patients carefully to avoid missing dead muscles or the presence of crush syndrome. [39] MLL of the knee can be managed successfully with compression wraps, cryotherapy, aspiration, and active motion exercises. [40]

Scalp injuries

Many techniques are used to treat patients with scalp-degloving injuries. [12] Most of the time, however, enough tissue can be mobilized to close the defect primarily. These defects should be repaired in the operating room, with good lighting under optimal circumstances. Appropriate draining and proper dressing are both crucial.

Study limitations

Our review has a number of limitations, main one being that we did not study non-English studies. Furthermore, our study was not designed to create guidelines or protocols as to how to manage these injuries.

   Summary Top

Degloving soft-tissue injuries are serious and potentially devastating. They require early recognition and early treatment. In the management of closed injuries in particular, a high index of suspicion remains crucial. A multidisciplinary approach is usually needed. Early reconstruction and effective rehabilitation are also essential to care for such patients. There is a need for multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional studies.

   References Top

1.Wójcicki P, Wojtkiewicz W, Drozdowski P. Severe lower extremities degloving injuries--medical problems and treatment results. Pol Przegl Chir 2011;83:276-82.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Antoniou D, Kyriakidis A, Zaharopoulos A, Moskoklaidis S. Degloving injury. Eur J Trauma 2005;31:593-6.   Back to cited text no. 2
3.Krishnamoorthy R, Karthikeyan G. Degloving injuries of the hand. Indian J Plast Surg 2011;44:227-36.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
4.Arnez ZM, Khan U, Tyler MP. Classification of soft-tissue degloving in limb trauma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010;63:1865-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Archier E, Grillo JC, Fourcade S, Gaudy C, Grob JJ, Richard, MA. Morel-Lavallée syndrome of the lower leg. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2012;139:216-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Hudson DA. Missed closed degloving injuries: Late presentation as a contour deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 1996;98:334-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Tseng S, Tornetta P 3rd. Percutaneous management of Morel-Lavallée lesions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88:92-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Tsur A, Galin A, Kogan L, Loberant N. Morel-Lavallée syndrome after crush injury. Harefuah 2006;145:111-3.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Hak DJ, Olson SA, Matta JM. Diagnosis and management of closed internal degloving injuries associated with pelvic and acetabular fractures: The Morel-Lavallée lesion. J Trauma 1997;42:1046-51.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Tejwani SG, Cohen SB, Bradley JP. Management of Morel-Lavallée lesion of the knee: Twenty-seven cases in the national football league. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1162-7.   Back to cited text no. 10
11.Yan H, Gao W, Li Z, Wang C, Liu S, Zhang F, Fan C. The management of degloving injury of lower extremities: Technical refinement and classification. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2013;74:604-10.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Arne BC. Management of scalp hemorrhage and lacerations. J Spec Oper Med 2012;12:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Graf P, Biemer E. Degloving injuries of the soft tissues of the heel. An indication for microvascular revascularization. Chirurg 1994;65:642-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Suresh Kumar Shetty B, Jagadish Rao PP, Menezes RG. Traumatic degloving lesion of male external genitalia. J Forensic Leg Med 2008;15:535-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Künzel RA, Marathovouniotis N, Kellner MW, Boemers TM. Severe degloving injury to both feet in a child. Unfallchirurg 2013;116:171-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Liu DX, Li XD, Wang H, Qiu KF, Du SX. Reconstruction of total degloving injuries of the foot in children. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012;73:209-14.   Back to cited text no. 16
17.McGrouther DA, Sully L. Degloving injuries of the limbs: Long-term review and management based on whole-body fluorescence. Br J Plast Surg 1980;33:9-24.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Ma Y, Li J, Li B. Determination of the cutaneous viability of skin following incomplete avulsion and its treatment. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 1999;13:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Van Vugt JL, Beks SB, Borghans RA, Hoofwijk AG. The Morel-Lavallée-lesion: Delayed symptoms after trauma. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2013;157:A5914.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Yu G, Lei HY, Guo S, Yu H, Huang JH. Treatment of degloving injury of three fingers with an anterolateral thigh flap. Chin J Traumatol 2011;14:126-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Kim YH, Ng SW, Youn SK, Kim CY, Kim JT. Use of latissimus dorsi perforator flap to facilitate simultaneous great toe-to-thumb transfer in hand salvage. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2011;64:827-30.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Meara JG, Guo L, Smith JD, Pribaz JJ, Breuing KH, Orgill DP. Vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of degloving injuries. Ann Plast Surg 1999;42:589-94.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Wong LK, Nesbit RD, Turner LA, Sargent LA. Management of a circumferential lower extremity degloving injury with the use of vacuum-assisted closure. South Med J 2006;99:628-30.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Dini M, Quercioli F, Mori A, Romano GF, Lee AQ, Agostini T. Vacuum-assisted closure, dermal regeneration template and degloved cryopreserved skin as useful tools in subtotal degloving of the lower limb. Injury 2012;43:957-9.   Back to cited text no. 24
25.Josty IC, Ramaswamy R, Laing JH. Vaccum assisted closure: An alternative strategy in the management of degloving injuries of the foot. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:363-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Lo S, Lin YT, Lin CH, Wei FC. A new classification to aid the selection of revascularization techniques in major degloving injuries of the upper limb. Injury 2013.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Mittlmeier T, Krapohl BD, Schaser KD. Management of severe soft-tissue trauma in the upper extremity - shoulder, upper and lower arm. Oper Orthop Traumatol 2010;22:196-211.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Doctor AM, Mathew J, Ellur S, Ananthram AA. Three-flap cover for total hand degloving. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010;63:e402-5.   Back to cited text no. 28
29.Ju J, Li J, Wang H, Hou R. Classification and treatment of whole hand degloving injury. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2012;26:453-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Nazerani S, Motamedi MH, Nazerani T, Bidarmaghz B. Treatment of traumatic degloving injuries of the fingers and hand: Introducing the "compartmented abdominal flap". Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 2011;15:151-5.   Back to cited text no. 30
31.Chi Z, Gao W, Yan H, Li Z, Chen X, Zhang F. Reconstruction of totally degloved fingers with a spiraled parallelogram medial arm free flap. J Hand Surg Am 2012;37:1042-50.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Seitz IA, Williams CS, Wiedrich TA, Henry G, Seiler JG, Schechter LS. Omental free-tissue transfer for coverage of complex upper extremity and hand defects-the forgotten flap. Hand (NY) 2009;4:397-405.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Wang X, Zhang P, Zhou Y. Replantation of a circumferentially degloved ring finger by venous arterializations. Indian J Orthop 2013;47:422-4.  Back to cited text no. 33
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
34.Adani R, Pataia E, Tarallo L, Mugnai R. Results of replantation of 33 ring avulsion amputations. J Hand Surg Am 2013;38:947-56.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Coulibaly NF, Sankale AA, Sy MH, Kinkpe CV, Kasse AN, Diouf S, Seye SI. Morel-Lavallée lesion in orthopaedic surgery (Nineteen cases). Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2011;56:27-32.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Baroudi R, Ferreira CA. Seroma: How to avoid it and how to treat it. Aesthet Surg J 1998;18:439-41.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Demirel M, Dereboy F, Ozturk A, Turhan E, Yazar T. Morel-Lavallée lesion: Results of surgical drainage with the use of synthetic glue. Saudi Med J 2007;1:65-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Jones RM, Hart AM. Surgical treatment of a Morel-Lavallée lesion of the distal thigh with the use of lymphatic mapping and fibrin sealant. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012;65:1589-91.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Vanhegan IS, Dala-Ali B, Verhelst L, Mallucci P, Haddad FS. The morel-lavallée lesion as a rare differential diagnosis for recalcitrant bursitis of the knee: Case report and literature review. Case Rep Orthop 2012;2012:593193.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Adani R, Castagnetti C, Landi A. Degloving injuries of the hand and fingers. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1995:19-25.  Back to cited text no. 40

Correspondence Address:
Rifat Latifi
Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; Trauma Surgery Section, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.136870

Rights and Permissions


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Regionalized coverage of the totally degloved foot by a combination of “Boat sock” style free flap and skin graft
Qifeng Ou, Xiaolin Dou, Panfeng Wu, Zhengbing Zhou, Ding Pan, Ju-yu Tang
Injury. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Ten-year incidence and treatment outcomes of closed degloving injuries ( M orel- L avallee lesions) in a level 1 trauma centre
Heather K Moriarty, Ee-Jun Ban, Richard N Schlegel, Gerard S Goh, Joseph K Matthew, Warren Clements
Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Complex facial degloving injury: a case report of a complication and its management
Dibya Falgoon Sarkar, Debanwita Dutta
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2022; 48(3): 174
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Early Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Biologic Mesh is Feasible after Catastrophic Abdominal Wall Disruption from Blunt Trauma
Agon Kajmolli, Asad Azim, Matthew McGuirk, Kartik Prabhakaran, David Samson, Peter Rhee, Rifat Latifi
Surgical Technology Online. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Reinforcement of Subcutaneous Drainage (Hybrid-iNPWT)
Daiki Kitano, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Tomoya Taniguchi, Atsushi Sakurai
International Journal of Surgical Wound Care. 2021; 2(1): 20
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Clinical Application of Artificial Dermis and Autologous Skin in Repairing Skin and Soft Tissue Defects of Hands and Feet with Bone Exposure Injuries
Chengke Li, Weihai Song, Yanwen Lei, Songgen Peng, Weiying Chu, Guochao Deng, Songwen Tan
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Uso de la matriz dérmica acelular para el tratamiento de zonas críticas en defectos de cobertura. Serie de casos
Mariano Oscar Abrego, Javier Sánchez Saba, Ezequiel Ernesto Zaidenberg, Ignacio Rellán, Agustín Donndorff, Gerardo Gallucci, Pablo De Carli, Jorge Guillermo Boretto
Revista de la Asociación Argentina de Ortopedia y Traumatología. 2021; 86(2): 167
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Role of allo-trilaminar dermal regenerative template in management of burns
Ravi Kumar Chittoria, Neljo Thomas, Padmalakshmi Bharathi Mohan, Shijina Koliyath, Imran Pathan, Nishad Kerakkada
IP Indian Journal of Anatomy and Surgery of Head, Neck and Brain. 2021; 7(3): 88
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Hydrogen-rich saline reduces tissue injury and improves skin flap survival on a rat hindlimb degloving injury model
Ayca Ergan Sahin, Aysin Karasoy Yesilada, Ozben Yalcin, Eray M. Guler, Harun Erbek, Damla Karabiyik
Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. 2021; 74(9): 2095
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
V. K. Sokol
Bulletin of Problems Biology and Medicine. 2020; 3(1): 380
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Degloving Soft Tissue Injuries of the Extremity: Characterization, Categorization, Outcomes, and Management
Christine Velazquez, Litton Whitaker, Ivo A. Pestana
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open. 2020; 8(11): e3277
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Truncal Degloving Injuries: A Marker of Distinct Morbidity and Mortality
Mariana J Becker, Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer Netto, André Pereira Westphalen, Allan Cezar Faria Araujo
Panamerican Journal of Trauma, Critical Care & Emergency Surgery. 2020; 9(1): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 A case of open degloving injury in a pregnant patient
Mussarat Afzal
MOJ Clinical & Medical Case Reports. 2019; 9(2): 44
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from a Morel-Lavallée Lesion
Emily S. Mills, Eytan M. Debbi, Earl W. Brien, Joseph C. Giaconi, Charles N. Moon
JBJS Case Connector. 2019; 9(4): e0441
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded139    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 14    

Recommend this journal